Coastal Georgia Archaeology Society collection on the Irene Mound
New Search | Return to Search Results | View/Save/Print PDF

Coastal Georgia Archaeology Society collection on the Irene Mound

Descriptive Summary

Repository: Georgia Historical Society
Creator: Coastal Georgia Archaeology Society (Savannah, Ga.)
Title: Coastal Georgia Archaeology Society collection on the Irene Mound
Dates: 1936-1940
Extent: 0.75 cubic feet (2 boxes, 2 folders)
Identification: MS 1621

Biographical/Historical Note

The Coastal Georgia Archaeology Society was form in 1981 with the purpose of promoting local archaeological investigation. The Society remains active in historical, education, and archaeological endeavors.

Irene was the name of a "little hill" located near the area of New Yamacraw, a Native American settlement, in the proximity of Savannah, Georgia. In 1736, Yamacraw Indian leader Tomochichi, Rev. Benjamin Ingham, Rev. Charles Wesley, and Rev. John Wesley began the project of building a Christian school house located on Irene which was to be called the Mission Irene. Upon the building of the school house, builders found an "abundance of Oister Shells, and some Bones and Buck horns," thus revealing that the little hill may have been an Indian mound. By 1739 the missionary efforts at Irene were abandoned due to several reasons, including the war with the Spanish and the desertion of new Yamacraw after the death of Tomochichi. BY 1761, the land had been divided up among colonists (Dolores Boisfeuillet Floyd, New Yamacraw and the Indian Mound Irene, Review PTG, 1936).


Scope and Content Note

This collection consists primarily of the correspondence of Dolores and Marmaduke Floyd pertaining to the publication of Mrs. Floyd's pamphlet, "New Yamacraw and the Indian Mound Irene," published in compliment to the archaeological excavation at the Irene Mound site, a Works Progress Administration Project (WPA) undertaken between September 1937 and January 1940. This site location was approximately 4.3 miles west of the intersection of Bull and Broughton Streets in Savannah, Georgia, at the confluence of Pipemaker's Canal and the Savannah River. Primary correspondence content pertains to arrangements of the pamphlet's debut at the 1938 Society of Georgia Archaeologists meeting, as well as letters of submission and acceptance for the pamphlet's dissemination to a variety of library facilities. Additional correspondence content includes matters of translations performed by Lucy Wenhold of Winston-Salem, North Carolina, on original Spanish documents pertinent to Irene Mound's original use. Letters are also present addressing specific comments on the Irene Mound dig management and staffing.

Other documents include a published copy of the pamphlet, personal reminiscence of Dolores Floyd relating to the pamphlet's publication, personal reminiscence of Joseph Waring concerning youthful escapades on the Irene Mound site, excavation reports submitted by Preston Holder (the 1937 Archaeologist in Charge), assistant J.R. Caldwell, and Vladimir J. Fewkes (1938 Archaeologist in Charge). Not all of these reports are complete. Also present are translations and undated correspondence. The dated correspondence is arranged chronologically . Undated correspondence is foldered separately, as are the translations, excavation reports, pamphlet, and reminiscence.

Also included in the collection are photographs of the mound at various stages of excavation, from a distance and in detail. Additionally, there are many pictures of W.P.A. employed African-American women working at the site. Also included are photographs of the Archaeologist in Charge, Vladimir J. Fewkes, and company touring the site. Items of special interest include images illustrating the excavation of skeletal remains and Miss Bessie Lewis' Darien High School senior class visiting the site. There are also some Floyd family pictures. Both Marmaduke Floyd and Lowry Axley are credited with photographs in this collection. Many of the images are duplicated. Items 1-174 are black and white 3"x5" images that recount activity at the archaeological excavation at the Irene Mound Site Items 175-248 are black and white contact sheet strips. Items 175-211 are attached to pieces of paper that are annotated with the date and information about what is taking place in the photographs. Some annotations include the photographs' names. The author of the annotations was most likely Dolores B. Floyd. Some of the photographs on the contact sheets are representative of the prints in items 1-174; however, many are not duplicated elsewhere in the collection. Items 212-248 are loose contact sheet strips. Some of these are annotated on the back, though most are not. Items 249-259 are loose black and white photographs of various sizes that are annotated on the back.

Photographs are arranged in the following subject categories: general views of the site; detail images of excavated earth; skeletal remains in ground; skeletal remains unearthed; Fewkes and company touring site; W.P.A. workers at site; students visit to site; Floyd family images; annotated contact sheets; loose contact sheets; and miscellaneous annotated photographs. The Floyd family images include a few generally scenic shots as well as an image of Lowry Axley with camera in hand.

The box containing visual materials is noted as "VM" in the collection inventory.


Index Terms

Archaeology--Georgia--Savannah.
Axley, Lowry, approximately 1890-1960.
Coastal Georgia Archaeology Society (Savannah, Ga.)
Creek Indians.
Floyd, Dolores Boisfeuillet, 1887-1966
Floyd, Marmaduke Hamilton, 1888-1949.
Indians of North America--Georgia.
Irene (Mound)
Letters (correspondence)
Missions, Spanish.
Pamphlets.
Photographs.
Research notes.

Administrative Information

Custodial History

Material was acquired from creating organization.

Preferred Citation

[item identification], Coastal Georgia Archaeology Society collection on the Irene Mound, MS 1621, Georgia Historical Society, Savannah, Georgia.

Acquisition Information

Gift of the Coastal Georgia Archaeology Society, 1998.


Restrictions

Access Restrictions

Collection is open for research.

Publication Rights

Copyright has not been assigned to the Georgia Historical Society. All requests for permission to publish or quote from manuscripts must be submitted in writing to the Division of Library and Archives. Permission for publication is given on behalf of the Georgia Historical Society as the owner of the physical items and is not intended to include or imply permission of the copyright holder, which must also be obtained by the researcher.


Sponsorship

Encoding funded by a 2012 Documenting Democracy grant from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission.

Container List

 

Box

Fldr

11Correspondence, 1936-1940
 
2Pamphlet, "New Yamacraw and the Indian Mound Irene," by Dolores B. Floyd, printed and typed copies. Personal reminiscence of Joseph F. Waring, 1936, 1943
 
3Reports from the archaeological excavation at the Irene Mound site, 1937-1938
 
4English translations of Spanish documents, typed, undated
"Account given by the Indian Juan Ignacio de los Reyes of the Yguaja tribe..." and "To the Queen..."
 
5Undated correspondence, miscellaneous materials
Includes reprint from American Antiquity, January 1938, "Technical Contributions to the Study of Archaeological Materials" and typed transcription of Sections 12 and 13 of March 4, 1909, copyright act.
 

vm_box

Fldr

Item

111-46General site views. View images: 1 | 2.
Online Inventory Contains Digitized Items
 

vm_box

Fldr

Item

1247-58Detail site views
 

vm_box

Fldr

Item

1359-69Skeleton embedded View online.
Online Inventory Contains Digitized Items
 

vm_box

Fldr

Item

1470-98Skeleton excavated View online.
Online Inventory Contains Digitized Items
 

vm_box

Fldr

Item

1599-106Fewkes tour
 

vm_box

Fldr

Item

16107-147W.P.A. workers. View images: 1 | 2 | 3.
Online Inventory Contains Digitized Items
 

vm_box

Fldr

Item

17148-164Student visitors View online.
Online Inventory Contains Digitized Items
 

vm_box

Fldr

Item

18165-174Floyd family
 

vm_box

Fldr

Item

19175-211Annotated contact sheets
 

vm_box

Fldr

Item

110212-248Loose contact sheets
 

vm_box

Fldr

Item

111249-259Miscellaneous annotated photographs View online.